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ZOK 



Vol. 5 JUNE, 1900. No i 



Editor, - - Katharine Brandegee. 



CONTENTS: 

Notes on Cactese— II : Katharine Brandegee i 

Southern California Forms of Phacelia Circinata Jacq.: S. P. Parish . 9 

Notes on Cupressus Macnabiana: AwcE Eastwood 
Cleistogamous Flowers in Scophulariacea? : T. S. Brandegee 

Recent I^iterature 

Notes and News 



ZOE PUBLISHING COMPANY, 

p. O. Box, 684, 

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II 

14 



I 



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ZOE 

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Vol. V. JUNE, 1900. No. i 



NOTES ON CACTE^— II.* 

KATHARINE BRANDEGEE. 

Students of other orders than the so called "succulents", especi- 
ally Cacti, have not usually a clear idea of the confusion existing 
in their nomenclature. It would be possible, perhaps, if all the 
species of Astragalus or Senecio were described from specimens 
without flowers or fruit, and the types preserved, to identify all 
or nearly all of them with living forms, though the labor required 
would be immense. If, however, these imperfect types were 
thrown away and botanists required to identify plants with only 
such descriptions, the identification could but be a series of 
guesses. In this predicament are students of Cactaceae, and it 
seems to me that the time has fully come to set science free 
from such a great and unavailing waste of time. 

Cacti, as is well known, are in trade to a considerable extent. 
Large collections are made in their native places and shipped 
to dealers, mostly in Europe, who find numbers of plants that 
answer to none of the spine descriptions in their manuals. They 
must have names, being unsalable without, and the honest 
dealer has recourse to a specialist, and waits with what patience 
he may, while the botanist racks his head over a mass of descrip- 
tions which do not describe and struggles to find by a process 
of exclusion whether the plants have possibly been described 
by some one who threw away the type after inditing a diagnosis 
that, but for the generic name, might stand for a sea urchin. 
In the meantime the unscrupulous dealer prints his list bespangled 
with "new" species to which he attaches his name, dissemi- 
nates them to the four quarters, mixing them from time to time 

* The first number uFthis series appeared in Erythea, vol. iii-123. 



2 Notes on Cactece. [zoE 

as the exigencies of trade demand; the next monographer pours 
all these names into the turgid synonymy, and so the process 
continues. 

To such an extent has the loose and lawless naming gone that 
besides the immense synonymy {Mamillaria centricirrha alone is 
credited fifty names), there are in the single genus Mamillaria, 
according to Dr. Schumann, one hundred and forty "uncertain 
species." In reality there are three times as many, because the 
synonymy is itself largely uncertain. 

The way out of this tangle is difficult but not impossible. 

1 . All pure nomina nuda should be at once cast out of the 

lists. 

2. All names credited to Catalogues or "Hort" should be 
credited instead to the first one who describes them intelligently 
and preserves the type in herbarium. For so great is the extern- 
al resemblance of species of Cacti that very rarely can one be 
certain that the plant described is of the same species as the 
original one of "Cat." or "Hort." Science has nothing to do 
with catalogue names of plants offered for sale, though the 
catalogues should and in most cases would be glad to have much 
to do with science. 

3. Species should not be recognized, even in synonymy, with- 
out an authentic type. It is astonishing what an amount of in- 
formation the specialist can extract from very unpromising 
material, and the man who undervalues types only furnishes 
proof of his conviction that no one will ever know more or see 
better than himself. 

Cacti are nearly always described from living specimens, and 
if there be but a single plant in the collection, the owner is usually 
unwilling to sacrifice it to the preservation of a type, yet a living 
type may at any time be confused by a careless gardener, and if 
it dies from disease or age, is so altered as to be of comparatively 
little value. It is possible, however, to preserve a fair authentic 
type without destroying the plant. A good photograph, two 
characteristic, connected areolae, three or four bunches of spines 
taken from different parts of the plant, a good flower, a fruit with 
seed can be taken with little injury from almost any plant, and 



VOL. 5] Notes on Cactece. 3 

such material glued upon a sheet of paper, attested b}^ the author 
and deposited in an accessible herbarium, would be a vast im- 
provement on most cactus types in existence. 

Cereus Emoryi Engelm. often has tuberous roots of a size 
approaching those of C. Greggii Engelm. I have tried them 
cooked but found them not particularly palatable. 

C. STRIATUS Brandg. Dr. Weber has kindly sent me a frag- 
ment of the type of his C. Diguetii for comparison. It is identical 
with C. striates, and much more related to C. Greggii than to 
C. tuberosus Pos. The local name of C. striatus is "Jaramataca." 
It forms weak branching stems, 6-12 dm. high, all the lower 
portion of hard wood, and quite unlike a cactus stem. The 
tubers are not closely contiguous to the stems, and if separated 
never sprout, although they live for years and become green if 
exposed to the light. 

C. Orcuttii. Stems erect, branching, bright green, reaching 
a height of 3 m. and a diameter of 15 cm. with hard woody 
center; ribs 14-18, about i cm. high; areolae round, about 6 mm. 
in diameter and about half that distance apart, densely covered 
with short, light gray wool; spines all slender, spreading, yellowish 
brown, irregularly 3-seriate; radials 12-20, about 12 mm. long, 
deficient above; intermediates about 10, Yi to more than twice 
longer, less spreading, one of the upper spines of this row usually 
stouter and darker, porrect, often reaching a length of 7 cm.; 
centrals about 5, porrect-spreading a little longer than the inter- 
mediates; flowers greenish brown, darker outside, diurnal, about 
4 cm. entire length; petals short-apiculate; ovary densely covered 
with short scales, almost completely concealed by thick, rounded 
tufts of yellowish wool, in which are imbedded dark brown 
bristles 4-6 mm. long; stamens lining the upper half of the 
tube; style tips acute; fruit not known. 

The plant from which this description is drawn was obtained 
by Mr. C. R. Orcutt near Rosario, Baja California, in May, 1886. 
It was brought to him by his guide, who found it off the trail 
some little distance. The cutting was planted in Mr. Orcutt' s 
garden, and is now about 2 m. in height; has flowered but 



4 Notes on CactecB. [zoE 

formed no fruit. It is much the finest of the large Cerei of Baja 
California, being denseh' covered with bright, yellowish brown 
spines. By its flowers it is obviously related to C. Pringlei Wats. 
The guide told Mr. Orcutt that it bore in its season edible fruit 
the size of an orange, but it is possible that he confused it with 
C. Thurberi. 

C. ScHOTTii Engelm. var. australis. Stems more slender and 
upright than the northern forms: ribs in the fertile ends, often as 
many as ten; areolae smaller and more distant, and the long 
spines commonly fewer and stouter; abortive spine or gland (?) 
below the acute base of areola more conspicuous. 

Mr. T. S. Brandegee has observed that the southern form of 
Pringlei is more slender than the northern one, and I have 
noticed the same thing in C. Alamosensis Coult. and apparently 
in C. Thurberi Engelm. 

I cannot understand how Dr. Schumann is able to refer so un- 
hesitatingly to this species C. Palmeri Engelm. in Coult. Contr. 
Nat. Mus. iii. 401. Engelraann described C. Schottii, which, so 
far I know, never has less than 5 ribs at maturity, always gray 
spines, and an entirely unarmed fruit, and it is inconceivable 
that he himself should describe the same .species as having "3-4 
ribs, greenish-brown spines, and fruit armed with bunches of 
5-8 short, stout spines." 

The figure of the fertile areolae of C. Schottii, Monog. Cact., 
173, appears to be upside down. 

C. Schottii, C. pecten-aborigimim and, judging by Engelmann's 
figure of the "young spines", C. giga7iteus\iQ\QX\^g to the genus 
Pilocereus as limited by Dr. Schumann. The flowering areolae 
of C. Pringlei are yet unknown to me. In C. pecten-aborigimim, 
now flowering in our garden, the fertile areolae show a porrect 
bunch of .spines, not at all spreading and so numerous that I have 
not attempted to count them. The woolly groove connecting 
the areolae in C. Pringlei, C. pecten-aboriginum, &c., is a continu- 
ation of its lower border, as may be seen in the occasional 
imperfect connections. 

C. GEOMETRIZANS Mart. var. Cochal. C. Cochal Ore. Dr. 
Schumann reduces this species, but taking Pringle's No. 3743 



\^OL. 5] Notes on Cacicce. 5 

from San Luis Potosi as fairly typical C. geometrisans, the vari- 
ety differs in the usually greater number of ribs, longer radial 
spines, more approximate areolse, smaller, red fruit and seeds 
smaller at base, with much smaller and not so entirely basal 
hilum. 

EcHiNOCACTUS MiCROMERiS Weber, Bois Diet. 804, Mamillaria 
micromeris Kngelm. Epiihelantha inicronieris Web. 1. c. I agree 
with Dr. Weber that this plant, which bears its flowers near the 
tips of the tubercles, is an Echinocactus, as the genus is now re- 
ceived. Dr. Schumann appears to dissent from this view princi- 
pally on account of the "evident relationship" of the plant with 
M. lasiacajitha — to which it seems to me. to be in no manner 
related. Dr. Engelmaun, indeed, placed them in juxtaposition, 
but he seems never to have mastered the structure of E. micro- 
meris, for he remarked upon its "axillary" flowers and fruits. 
The seeds would indicate a very different relationship. They are 
of peculiar form and, though of smaller size, much resemble 
those of Echinocactus [Astrophytiim) tnyriostigma. 

It is a singular fact that the first species mentioned under each 
of Engelmann's Mamillarian subgenera should be an Echino- 
cactus: E. micromeris under Eumamillaria, and E. papyracantha 
under Coryphantha. 

Echinocactus capricornis Dietr. A plant in our garden, 
having its apex dried and hardened by some injury is flowering 
from all the grooves. The flowers are not single, as from areolae, 
but in clusters, 1-2 cm. distant from the top of the groove. 

Echinocactus viridescens Nutt. Mr. C. A. Purpus 
brought this winter a ripe fruit of this species, in which a large 
number of the seeds had germinated and grown to the length of 
4-6 millimetres. I have observed the same thing several times in 
the green-fruited Mamillarias. 

E. ERECTOCENTRUS Coult. In Dr. Schumann's monograph 
this species is given as a synonym of E. Beguinii Web. in Reb. 
Cat., which is described as having its ribs completely separated 
into tubercles, while Dr. Coulter says that the ribs of his plant 
are tuberculate interrupted. To this species probably belongs E. 



6 Notes on Caciecs. [zoE 

Krausei Hildm. (name only) described by Karl Hirscht in M. f. 
K. vii. 107. Both E. Krausei and the type of E. eredocentrus 
came from the vicinity of Benson, Arizona. E. Krausei of Schu- 
mann's monograph may not belong to the same species. Dr. 
Weber's plant from Coahuila, included by Dr. Coulter in his 
type, is unknown to me. Dr. Weber, in Bois Diet. 466, 1893, 
under E. horripilus L,em., says: "L' E. h. Eredocentrus ^^h. 
(Syn.: E. Beguinii Web. Mamillaria Beguinii Hort.) est une 
forme a tige toujours simple et aiguillons plus nombreux, eriges.' 
I think all must agree that this is not a valid description, and 
Dr. Coulter's has priority over all the others that are not nomina 
nuda. 

A very gorgeously colored chromo-lithograph of this species 
{siw6. Cereus pedinatus rigidissimus) , under the name oi Maynil- 
laria Childsi, was issued some time ago as an advertisement by 
A. Blanc of Philadelphia, and was reissued in F. A. Walton's 
Cactus Journal for June, 1899. Names like this should not be 
interjected into botanical nomenclature, and the only reason for 
mentioning it here is that Dr. Schumann comments upon it in 
M. f. K. ix. 117, as a species unknown to him. 

MamilIvARIA Scheerii Muhlpf. Professor Schumann in- 
cludes this species in his division "No red or yellow glands in 
axil or groove", and gives as synonyms, M. Salm-Dyckiana, M. 
robustisphia and Echinocadus Poselgerianus. 

In describing var. valida of M. Sdieerii, Dr. Engelmann ex- 
pressly states that there are from 1-5 red glands in the groove, 
so also runs the original description of M. Sdieerii, and so it is 
found in my specimens. M. robusiispina, to which and not to 
M. macromeris, as Dr. Schumann refers it, certainly belongs 
M. Brownii Tuomey, collected in the same locality, shows only 
occasionally a single gland just back of the spines, and the 
central spine is often hooked. All these mamillarias have yellow 
flowers, yet Dr. Schumann describes the flower as "bright rose- 
red (according to Weber, also yellow)". The flower of his 
description must therefore come from Echinocadus Poselgerianus. 
In the original description of this latter, the flower was lacking, 
but the plant was compared to E. hexcedrophorus Lem. 



vol,. 5] Notes on Cactccs. 7 

M. RECURVATA Engelm. M. recurvispina Engelm, M. Noga- 
lensis Ruiige Cat. abounds in collections in two forms, one with 
bright yellow, the other with much paler or whitish spines. A 
character which appears not to have been noticed is the presence, 
just back of the spines, in the groove of a large oval gland. By 
the kindness of Prof. Trelease I have been able to verify this 
upon the type of M. recurvispina. In cultivation this species 
appears to flower with difficult}^, but the few cases noticed show 
the flower and fruit to be remote from the centre. 

Mamillaria Pringlei (Coult.) Cont. Nat. Herb. iii. 109 
(under Cactus). The type of this species is not to be found in 
the Gray Herbarium at present; it may be misplaced. No plant 
of the kind is in our set of Pringle's, but at my request Mr. 
Pringle very kindly sent me for examination the cacti of his 
private herbarium. I find among them a plant labelled "Mamil- 
laria, Tultenango Caiion, 17 Oct. 1890, No. .3679," which 
agrees with the description — though I should call the flower 
purple, not red. It seems to me scarcelj'^ to differ from M. 
Carretii Schumann. Both plants are described as having naked 
axils, but my specimen of the latter, which came from McDowell, 
Mexico, and so probably from the original collection, is more 
or less setose. 

M. armillata^. Stems somewhat attenuate, reaching 3 dm. 
in height, 4-5 cm. in diameter, usually in clusters of 3-12, from 
the base, often branching above; tubercles somewhat leathery in 
texture; conical, somewhat angled; axils setose and sparsely 
woolly; radial spines 9-15, 7-12 mm. long, the inner half whitish 
or grayish; centrals 1-4, 10-20 mm. long, the lower one hooked 
and longer, all, and the outer part of the radials dark brown, yel- 
lowish or gray; flowers 1-2 cm. long, scarcely spreading, flesh 
color; fruit red, clavate, 1)^-3 cm. long; .seeds coriaceous, 
dull black, about i mm. long, obliquely obovate. constricted 
above the more slender basal portion; surface covered with 
minute, not closely contiguous pits, the intervening spaces min- 
utely wrinkled; hilum basal, narrow. San Jose del Cabo, Baja 



• Plates of the new species of Cacti will appear at the end of the volume. 



8 - Notes on Cadecs. [zoE 

California. The name is in allusion to the dark bands which 
encircle the plant, giving it much the appearance of a raccoon's 
tail. 

M. venusta. Simple becoming caespitose in clusters of, in 
extreme cases, as many as 40; heads 2-4, very rarely, in center 
of large clusters, 6 cm. high, a little less in diameter; tubercles 
thick and short, concave at the end, greenish, purplish to nearly 
white, glaucous; axils only slightlj^ woolly, soon naked; radial 
spines, 9-15, stout, 6-12 mm. long; centrals typically solitary, 
10-15 nira., sometimes 2 or 3, in a single specimen 4, porrect- 
spreading, the three upper very short; flowers about 4 cm. in 
diameter, rose-color, widely spreading, tube very short; petals 
lanceolate acute,' recurved-spreading; style-branches 5, ap- 
parently rosy brown; fruit 1^-2 cm. long, scarlet, linear, circum- 
scissile some distance above the base, nearly dry; seeds oblong- 
obovate, rather less than i mm. long, constricted above the basal 
portion, which is half as long and nearly as wide as the upper; 
surface dull, minutely pitted, the pits much obscured by delicate 
intervening striae; hilum basal, large and triangular. 

Collected by Mr. T. S. Brandegee in the vicinity of San Jose 
del Cabo, Baja California, in Sept., 1890. (No. 240, M. Good- 
richii, of "Flora of the Cape Region"); again Sept. 1893, and 
for the third time last year in numerous living specimens. It 
has been known for some time that it was un described, but in 
this group complete material is necessary. The spines are from 
pure white, barely tipped with brown, to dark brown, whitish 
only near the base. The flowers, which appear in September, 
hide the whole plant, and it is of such low growth as to look 
like a beautiful cluster of flowers springing from the sand. The 
fruit appearing in winter is nearly dry and falls very readily 
when ripe, leaving most of the seeds in the axillary cup. It is 
the only circumscissile mamillaria known to me. 

M. Schumann Hildm. M. f. K. i., 125, abb. bei p. 102, 
bears some resemblance to M. venusta, but is a much larger, rel- 
atively more slender plant, and presumably came from the main- 
land. Dr. Schumann remarks in Monog. Cact. 545, that he has 



VOL. 5] Forms of Phacclia circinata. 9 

not seen it — which means, I suppose, that the type was not pre- 
served. 

M.fragilis, S.-D. Prince Salm-Dyck, having noted that this 
familiar little plant did not agree with the description of M. 
gracilis P/r., suggested M. fragilis as a highly appropriate name 
for a plant which sheds its multitudinous offsets on the slightest 
provocation. The original description of M. gracilis reads : 
"Cylindrical, slender, proliferous; axils naked; tubercles short, 
obtusely conical, areolae nearly naked; radial spines 16, bristle- 
like, white; central 2 more rigid." The type presumably was 
not preserved. Certainly no one will argue that this description 
could appl}^ to M. gracilis, and if investigation shows that no 
type is in existence the unmistakable name proposed by Prince 
Salm-Dyck should be adopted. 

M. Brandegei Coult. M. Gabbii Engelm. in Coult. Prof. 
Schumann includes these in the synouomy of M. Heyde^i 
Miihlpf., but they seem to me, from the description, nearer M. 
simplex Haw. A large amount of material brought by Mr. C. A. 
Purpus from the vicinity of Calmalli, Baja California, shows the 
species to be quite variable in form, color and spines, while agree- 
ing in flower and fruit. The plants are usually globose-flattened 
or short cylindrical, commonly single, often double sometimes 
dichtomous, and occasionally in clusters of 8 or more. In color 
the spines vary from nearly white to dark brown; the radials 9-16, 
centrals 1-4, most commonly 2, all the number variations often 
found on the same plant. Flowers greenish-yellow, about 15 
mm. long, tubular, hardly expanded above. Fruit white, more 
or less tinged with lilac, commonly bearing r-5 fringed scales, 
with sometimes a tuft of weak spines in the axils. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA FORMS OF PHACELIA 
CIRCINATA JACQ. 

S. B. PARISH. 

It would readily be inferred from the extensive geographical 
distribution of Phacelia circinaia that it would present marked 



lo Forms of Phacelia circinata. [zoE 

local variations; and such is, in fact, the case. Some of these are 
so distinct in appearance, as to be taken as even specifically dif- 
ferent. But on examination it is found that the very nature of 
these differences, based as they are on more important identities, 
forbid such a view, the diverse aspect exhibited by extreme forms 
being due to the degree of development of common characters. 

All the forms are alike in the aggregation of most of the leaves 
in basal clusters; in a pubescence of two kinds, one long and 
strigose, the other short, close and fine; and in floral characters. 
The filaments and styles are much exserted, the former sparsely 
arachnoid on the exserted part, and the latter hispid on the in- 
cluded portion; the appendages of the corolla are joined to the 
base of the filaments so as to form pockets behind them, while 
their united edges form inverted pockets between the filaments; 
the ovary is densely hirsute, and becomes a small (line high) 
acute capsule with alveolate seeds. 

In different forms the stems may vary from a height of one or 
two inches to as many feet, the strigose hairs may quite cov^er the 
finer pubescence, or both may be scanty, and the cymes and cy- 
mules may be condensed, orelongated and diiTuse. The typical leaf 
form is pinnate, with a large ovate or lanceolate terminal lobe, 
and a few small lateral ones at base, but these differ in number 
and shape, or may be suppressed. 

The more pronounced of these forms are perhaps worthy of 
varietal names, but these should be bestowed only after the study 
of very ample material, and the examination of types of the pro- 
posed species that have pa.ssed into synonymy. 

The purpose of the present paper is merely to note a few dis- 
tinct forms growing in various parts of Southern California, which 
appear to be fixed in type and exclusively present in the local- 
ities where they occur. All our plants are perennial but farther 
north there are annual or at most biennial forms, which dijBfer in 
no other respect from the perennial ones. 

(a) Stems slender and very unequal, 2-12 inches high, sparse- 
ly leafy, sparsely hispid, the finer pubescence very short; leaves 
lanceolate, 1-2 inches long, all entire, 8-nerved; cy mules distant 
and short. 



VOL. 5] Notes on Ciipressiis Macnabiana. 1 1 

Bear Valley, at 6.500 ft. alt., in the San Bernardino Mts. 2,- 
957 Parish. 

{b.) Stems foot high, equal; very sparsely hirsute or pubescent; 
leaves with a pair of large triangular teeth at base, 4-nerved; 
cyme diffuse. 

Green Valley, 6,000 ft. alt. in the San Bernardino Mts., H. M. 
Hall. 

{c) Stems stout, 6-18 inches high, but nearly equal in 'the 
same plant, canescently hispid, pubescence very short; leaves 1-2 
inches long, on petioles of the same length, lateral lobes 1-2 pairs, 
short, acute; cymes of dense, elongated geminate cymules. 

Along the base of the mountains near San Bernardino, at i,- 
200-1,500 ft. alt., 4160 Parish. Type of P. virgata var. (?) 
Ber7iardina, Greene, Eryth. 4.55. 

{d) Stems slender, very unequal, 2-18 inches high in the same 
plant, leafy and floriterous from near the base; sparsely hispid, 
fine pubescence very close and short; leaves with several scattered 
and very unequal acute basal lobes; cymules distant and short. 

Stonewall mine, 4,600 ft. alt. in the Cuyamaca Mts. 4423 
Parish. 



NOTES ON CUPRESSUS MACNABIANA. 

AI,ICE EASTWOOD. 

This Cypress is, according to Professor C. S. Sargent (Syl. N. 
Am. X. 109), one of the rarest trees in CaHfornia, known only 
from a few dry slopes on the hills south and west of Clear Lake, 
in Lake County. The specimens from which the .species was 
described were, however, collected at the southern base of Mt. 
Shasta, in 1854. Since then, it has not been found around Mt. 
Shasta. Dr. C. Hart Merriam (Biol. Surv. of Mt. Shasta, N. 
Am. Fauna, 16, 138) has suggested that the term 'Shasta' was 
probably used in a rather loose sense, as covering adjacent moun- 
tains not then named. 

Recent collections in Mendocino, Lake, and Napa Counties 
give new and more definite information concerning the distribution 



12 Notes on Ctipj'cssus Macnabiana. [zoE 

and habitat of this species, showing that it is much more 
widely distributed than has been supposed. 

In the first place, this Cypress is more partial to the banks of 
streams than, to dry slopes and only in moist localities do the 
trees attain any size. Generally it is associated with C. Goveni. 
ana: but among all the trees that have come under my observation 
the two species are distinct and without the slightest trace of 
hybridization. Carl Purdy who has found these two species to- 
gether on Red Mountain in Mendocino County tells me that, 
there, they seem to intermingle. 

On the stage road between Hopland and Highland Springs, on 
the eastern slope of the dividing ridge, not very far from the sum- 
mit, I saw C. Macnabiana for the first time. It startled me by 
its pale and strange appearance. This first tree was one of tlie 
largest seen and grew along the creek bordering the road. From 
there to within three miles of Highland Springs these cypresses 
occurred sparingly along the creek, associated generally with C. 
Goveniana. At one place, quite a dense grove of small trees 
appeared lo be climbing up the hillside. These were from five 
to fifteen feet high, pyramidal in outline, with the lowest branches 
sweeping the ground. The large trees lose this symmetry, be- 
come loosely branched and rise to a height of from thirty to forty 
feet, with a diameter near the base of the trunk, of between one 
and two feet. 

A week later, on the road from the toll-house on Mt. St. Helena 
to Middleton, in Napa County, not far from the summit of the 
ridge, I again found a patch of C Goveniana on the hillside, near 
the road. I wondered whether the other species was to be found 
along the creek that could be seen far below at the base of the 
hill, and, upon investigation, discovered a few scattered trees 
there, but genuine representatives of the species. Several years 
ago Mr. John Mc. Lean had brought specimens of this cypress 
from the same range of hills, which he had collected on the road 
from Calistoga to the Etna mines and had presented to the 
Herbarium of the California Academy of Sciences. 

In this collection, also is a specimen collected by Dr. C. C. 
Parry at Chico, Butte County. 



vol.. 5] Cleistogamous Flowets in Scrophulariacecs. 13 

No authors who have written of this Cypress have mentioned 
the delightful fragrance of the fresh foliage. Probably they have 
know only dried specimens from which the charateristic odor 
disappears. It is somewhat like sandalwood, but sweeter and not 
so strong and with a flavor of pineapple. However, even with- 
out this, there ought to be no difficulty in distinguishing C. Mac- 
nabiana from its associate C. Goveniana. Its later period of 
blooming, its delicate foliage, sprinkled all over with tiny white 
glands, and its peculiar cones with their horn-like bosses mark it 
as distinct from this as well as from all other species. 



CI.EISTOGAMOUS FLOWERS IN SCROPHULARIACE^. 

T. S. BRANDEGEE. 

EiNARiA Canadensis Dum. as it grows about San Diego 
has a multitude of cleistogamous flowers on the lower part of the 
main and the whole length of the many side branches. These 
flowers are from i^^-S mm. long (not equaling the calyx-lobes), 
not spurred, usually white, but bluish in transitional forms. The 
fully developed flowers are as large as I have seen in the specise. 

Antirrhinum Cooperi Gray. The early flowers of this 
plant are often, if not always, cleistogamous, and A. filipes 
Gray was evidently founded on such a condition. 

A. Watsoni V. & R. has early cleistogamous flowers. 

A. subsessile Gray. This is the common species about San 
Diego and in consequence has been most observed. While cleis- 
togamy is the rule in the young plant^ it does not always occur. 
Transition forms are found in the later flowers, which even though 
still cleistogamous often show color; the earlier flowers being 
white and scarcel}' exceeding the calyx-lobes. 



RECENT LITERATURE. 

Gesamtbescht eibung der Kakteen {Monographia Cadacearum) 
von Dr. Carl Schumann, mit einer kutzen Anweisung stir 
Pflcge der Kakteen, von Karl Hirscht, pps. 1-832, figs, i-iij. 
Neudamni, i8gg. 

Since the appearance of the second edition of Forster's Hand- 
book in 1886, no attempt until now has been made to bring 
together all the described species of cacti. Forster admitted over 
nine hundred as valid species; Dr. Schumann enumerates less 
than seven hundred, including one hundred and eighty new or 
recent ones. He has, therefore, reduced by about one-half the 
species of the previous monograph. The work, though more 
scientific in form than Forster's, appears to be intended primarily 
for the use of gardeners and amateur cultivators of Cacti. Indeed, 
the species are still too little known to admit of settled classifi- 
cation. 

The descriptions of species are unnecessarily long, the same 
phrases being repeated page after page, when by a judicious use 
of sections the book might be greatly reduced in size. A more 
serious matter is the alteration of the original diagnoses, in 
many cases quite obscured by broadening to include descriptions 
of other forms, which may or may not be related, or as in a 
number of cases the original character is set aside and the 
description entirely re-written from living plants, the identifica- 
tion of which is not entirely free from doubt. In consequence 
the original sources must be consulted, and the botanical interest 
of the work consists chiefly in the new species and the grouping. 

The sequence of the genera in Forster is, perhaps, to be pre- 
ferred. The separation of the Rhipsalidae from Cereus and 
Phyllanthus by the interposition of Echinocactus, Mamillaria, 
etc., is quite unnatural. The species of Epiphyllum are distributed 
to Cereus (£". obtusangtdiun Lindb. ) and to Phyllocactus ^E. 
Riissellianum. Hook, and E. Gartneri Sch.) leaving E. trtincahim 
Haw. alone to represent the genus which is kept up solely on 
such a trivial character as the obliquity of the flower. It would 
seem much better to group together the species by their common 



VOL. 5] Recent Literature. 15 

character of flowering from the depressed summit, and place 
them as a section in Phyllacanthus. 

In the Opuntiae a more natural sequence would seem to be 
Peireskia, Maihuenia, Pereskopuntia Pterocactus, Cyliudropun- 
tia, Platopuntia, Nopalea. Mahuenia attributed to Phillippi but 
no reference given, and no species credited to him, appears to me 
better as a section of Pereskia. Pereskopuntia might, perhaps, 
include Pterocactus, the ovary being buried in the fruit-bearing 
branch, in both; at least it is so in the Pereslcopuntias Porteri and 
Brandegei. 

The proposed division of Cereus by reinstating with altered 
boundaries the old genera Cephalocereus and Pilocereus cannot 
well be carried out. The plants so brought together are quite 
heterogeneous. 

Echinocactus as at present received is a somewhat confused 
assemblage, some of its members too closely connected with 
other genera. By their fruits and seeds, when they are 
better known, it may be possible to improve the generic bound- 
aries. 

The sections of or subgenera are still poorly defined. The 
lactescent species are often difficult, and in herbarium specimens 
impossible to discriminate. A considerable number of the species 
in Dr. Schumann's § Hydrochylus undoubtedly have milky juice. 
Of those which have latex only in the body of the plant discrim- 
ination is sufficiently difficult even in life, for the amount seems 
to vary greatly with the state of growth. 

The subgenus Coryphantha is divided into two sections, Aula- 
cothelaae and Glanduliferse, by the presence or absence of glands 
in the axil or groove, only five of the twenty-two species being 
credited with them, while as a matter of fact they can be 
demonstrated in most of the other species. 

There are occasional errors in citation, quite pardonable con- 
sidering the number of references. A curious instance of con- 
fused reference is found at the foot of page 495, where he finds it 
very strange that Coulter could not find M. daimonoceras, for "it 
is to be found on the same page with M. impexicoma, which he 
ciles, and Prince Salm-Dyck quite correctly, 1. c. 131, quoted." 



1 6 Recent Literature. [zoE 

On looking up the reference in Salm-Dyck, it is found to be 
"Lem, Cact. gen nov. p. 5," whereas it should be Lem. Cact. 
aliq. nov. 5, an earlier work by the same author. 

Quite a number of names have perhaps by accident been 
omitted from the work. Among them are the following new 
ones by Prof. Coulter : Cactus alternatus, brunneus, capillaris, 
densispinus, Esdianzieri, maculatus, Palmeri, Pringlei, radia7is- 
pedenoides . 

The most objectionable feature of the monograph is the refer- 
ence of a considerable number of new names to ephemeral trade 
catalogues, of which in most cases no number or page is cited. 
For example: ''Mamiltatia Trotiartii Hildm. cat.", locality 
"Mexico", flower and fruit "unknown"; ''Mamiltaria gigantea 
Hildm. cat."; synonyms — "J/. McDowetlii Hildm. cat. M. 
Guanajuatensis Runge cat." These references are mostly to 
names only, sometimes with a brief unscientific notice, and are 
as a rule inaccessible to students, not being offered for sale but 
issued yearly to the trade as a list from which customers may 
order plants. Fortunately the English and American catalogues 
are entirely ignored. 

Pittonia, vol. iv., Pt. 22, pp. 105-158. In the first paper Prof. 
Greene falls upon Prof. Underwood for stating the fact that 
"Necker's fern genera [Necker calls them species] are not based 
on types and no earlier references are cited." This is true of all 
his other "species", and while it is undeniably true that most of 
them may be picked out by a process of exclusion, it is also true 
that there is a growing number of botanists who wish to have 
some portion of their time for inve.stigations which shall add to 
the sum of knowledge rather than to waste the whole of it in 
profitless researches into nearly forgotten works, from which 
about the only good to be derived is a possible change of name. 
The present system of change from the plain and well-known to 
the obscure and vague, is fast driving botanists towards an inter- 
national commission and deposit of all new types in national 
museums. The remainder of the number is taken up with 
"decades" and "fascicles" of new species, forerunners, perhaps, of 
centuries and myriads. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 

Erythea VII, No. 12, pt. i. The announcement is made that 
this journal will cease with the next number containing title-page, 
index, etc. Its discontinuance is much to be regretted but it is 
understood that its superintendence made too great a draft on the 
time of the editor, whose duties as Assistant Professor of Botany 
in the University of California leave little space for outside work. 

In the Botanical Gazette for April, 1900, Prof. B. L. Robinson 
in noticing The Synopsis of Mexican and Central American 
Umbelliferoe says: "The many specific names which the authors 
have been obliged to coin, are mostly the simple and familiar 
descriptive terms of the glauca, serrata and rigida type, with no 
such linguistic jumbles as pseudoparviflora, hetetappendiculata, 
Saxifragopsis, parvicarpum, etc., which have of late so frequently 
marred the publication from other American botanical establish- 
ments, although rarely found in the writings of our more classical 
transatlantic colleagues. Another point which merits .special 
mention is the scrupulous care with which the authors have 
avoided the publication of manuscript or herbarium names in 
their synonymy — a useless practice which, notwithstanding the 
emphatic protest of Mr. B. Daydon Jackson and others, is still too 
prevalent." We commend these remarks to some of our western 
botanists who are apparently anxious to condense a page of des- 
cription into a specific name. 

The Fern Bulletin for 1900 contains a characteristic photograph 
and and an appreciative notice by Thomas Meehan of John H. 
Redfield. He was the founder of the botanical .section of the 
Philadelphia Academy of Sciences, and curator of the herbarium. 
His books and collections were sold for its benefit, the latter going 
to tlie Missouri Botanic Garden, 

Dr. C. A. Purpus has gone for a collecting trip to the bound- 
ary region between Utah and Colorado. His botanical collections 
made in that region last year were principally from the high 
mountains. 



JOHN R. BARROWS 

announces to the botanical world and to the general public the fact that as a 

DEALER IN RARE CACTI 

he oflfers Mammilaria venusta, M. armillata and other new species as well 
as the commoner and better known forms, 

AND 

Attractive prices will be quoted. He will furnish bright, healthy plants 
and will endeavor, generally, to make of every purchaser a friend and well- 
wisher. Correspondence is invited upon this subject. He oflfers also 

BOTANICAL SPECIMENS. 

Believing that the time has come, when large sets of plants from regions 
already fairly well known are no longer desirable in the larger herbaria he 
oflfers for sale as desiderata a large number of rare plants collected by Dr. C. 
A. Purpus, A. W. Anthony and others. 

Plants will be in good coudition, correctly named, and special attention 
given to fruits. 

CATALOGUE ON APPLICATION. 



SAN DIEGO, CALIFORNIA, U. S. A. 

p. O. BOX 296.